Professor Monica Axelsson from Stockholm University held a Prestige Lecture at the University of Canterbury on 9 February 2017.;
The wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria have forced a high number of people to leave their countries and seek refuge elsewhere. Sweden, in the north of Europe, has recently received a large number of refugees. The reception of new arrivals has greatly affected society as a whole and schools in particular. Professor Axelsson presents findings from a recent three-year research project investigating how municipalities and schools in Sweden have organised instruction to meet the needs of the newly arrived. The two main reception models used for newly arrived students are introductory classes or immediate mainstreaming. These models have been examined with respect to the resources provided for students’ everyday and academic language and literacy development and social inclusion.
Professor Axelsson visited the School of Teacher Education and the LATL-lab in 2017 as Visiting Canterbury Fellow.
The video below is of Monica Axelsson and Una Cunningham in conversation on March 11, 2017 at Una’s home in Christchurch, New Zealand about bilingualism, and the difference between bilingualism and multilingualism. They also discuss the meaning of terms like first language, or L1, second language or L2, foreign language and home language, and whether or not English is a second or foreign language in Sweden. Monica explains that most Swedish young people are actually bilingual, even though they may not think so themselves. Monica and Una talk about domains of language use (that is spheres of knowledge, influence, or activity) and Monica takes a look inside Una’s kitchen drawer to see what kitchen equipment she can name in English. Una asks Monica to talk about the special position of English in Sweden, where it is more a second language than a foreign language and about translanguaging, which is the use of more than one language at a time. This term was first used by Cen Williams (1994) to refer to “the ability of multilingual speakers to shuttle between languages, treating the diverse languages that form their repertoire as an integrated system”.
Towards the end of the video, the conversation moves to the position of indigenous languages, especially Sámi, in Sweden. Monica compares the position of the Sámi language with that of Te Reo Māori in New Zealand.
Professor Monica Axelsson from Stockholm University came to Christchurch and the Learning and Teaching Languages Research Lab as a 2017 Visiting Canterbury Fellow to the University of Canterbury. Monica’s expertise is focused on the learning conditions of newly-arrived refugee and migrant children, and on language across the curriculum. She has been recruited to the National Science ChallengeE Tipu E Rea Better Start braid ‘Emerging bilinguals growing up in their digital world’ as an international advisor.
We welcome researchers, students, teachers and community members who are interested in the challenges and benefits of Intergenerational transmission of minority languages to this third international Symposium. This symposium is entirely online and asynchronous. There is no fee to view, or download the presentations. The comments function has closed. This proceedings site has been moved to its current location to ensure it will continue to be available to readers and viewers.
The presentations will be available indefinitely, with Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 licencing, which makes them available to a much wider audience of researchers, students and interested community members and policy makers than would otherwise be reached.
Cite as: Taligalu McFall-McCaffery, J. & McCaffery, J. (2017, December). The intergenerational transmission of Pacific languages in Aotearoa NZ. Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5663134
The intergenerational transmission of all Pacific languages in Aotearoa NZ is now becoming seriously at risk due to the continuing lack of recognition, status and prestige in the Civic Domain which is largely controlled by (successive) governments and their agencies. In this paper we update our current state 2010 Alternative (6) article on the overview of Pacific languages in Aotearoa NZ and our 2013 Census analysis. We argue now that in spite of many important initiatives by Pacific communities since 2010 that because of this lack of status in the Civic Domain, Pacific youth and many communities continue to see our languages as the languages of older generations, suitable mainly for home and church and largely unsuited for work, education and the future.
Judy Taligalu McFall-McCaffery, Pasifika Librarian, Researcher Maori & Pasifika Information Services, GeneralLibrary, The University of Auckland
Cite as: Kim, J., Cunningham, U., & King, J. (2017, December). “Are we doing the right thing?” How Korean immigrant families practise their family language policies in monolingual-focused New Zealand.Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5669674
This study aims to explore the benefits and challenges of being bilingual in both Korean and English language amongst Korean immigrant families. A recent government report (Office of Ethnic Affairs, 2013) emphasised that English language acquisition by migrant families is important for participation in mainstream society. In contrast to this report, the Office of Ethnic Communities (2016) promotes Heritage and Community Language Celebration Guidelines to encourage immigrants to maintain their languages that may support in language and identity development as well as bring more benefits to society. These differing Government policies create confusion for immigrant families who want their children to be bilingual.
This presentation compares bilingual Korean immigrant family and monolingual of English speaking Korean family in their language practices. The findings show that both the Korean parents and the adolescents believe that an ability to fluently speak two languages helps them to develop a dual identity, and the confidence to positively participate in mainstream society as both Korean and Kiwi. However, a lack of multilingual awareness amongst the majority society may hinder minority language transmission and maintenance in immigrant families.
Cite as: Paníco , D. (2017, December). Language choices of siblings in Italian/English families. Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5661808
Language choices of siblings in Italian/English families
Within the framework of language socialization and Family Language Policy studies, this qualitative study explores the language choices of bilingual siblings and their parents in Italian/English families residing in Sydney. The main source of data is video recordings of naturally occurring parent-children and child-to-child interactions during every day routines (i.e., family mealtimes and sibling playtime) in the home environment. The analysis of recurrent interactional practices is performed according to a conversational analytical approach. The focus of this presentation is on the language choices negotiated during the mealtime conversations of a ‘one-person-one-language’ family. More specifically, the analysis of sequences of bilingual exchanges involving the children and the minority language parent provides insights into the relationship between the parental strategies aiming to heritage language maintenance and the responsiveness of the children. The early findings show the dynamic ways in which family language policy is interactionally constructed and instantiated as well as the challenges of intergenerational language transmission in bilingual families with more than one child.
Cite as: Lin, J. & Ballard, E. (2017, December). Language shift and maintenance in 1.5 generation Chinese in New Zealand: initial findings.Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5674669
Research into language maintenance suggests that Chinese language communities in English speaking countries undergo rapid inter-generational language shift (Li Wei, 1994; Clyne & Kipp, 1999; Jia, 2008; Zhang, 2010). In this presentation we consider the status of language shift and maintenance within the 1.5 generation Chinese New Zealanders. Eleven tertiary students were interviewed on their views on language and its role in their perception of culture and identity. The findings suggest, similar to other research, there is already a shift towards English. Participants attribute this to the lack of opportunities for using Chinese and the pressures to learn English. However, language shift may be slower than in other research, as self-rated Chinese language proficiency was high for all participants. The level of proficiency is attributed to a combination of factors including attendance at Chinese language school, social media use and the use of Chinese as a home language. Interestingly, many still placed importance on retaining Chinese because of the language’s role in maintaining connections to family, the Chinese community and their culture. We conclude with some thoughts on the multiplicity of factors that enhance home language maintenance.
Cite as: Albury, N. J. (2017, December). Epistemology of language as a cause of language shift: Chinese heritage languages in Malaysia. Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5620573
The heritage languages of Malaysia’s Chinese community are many. Waves of migration from southern China, peaking in the late 1800s during British colonial rule, established a home for various varieties including Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew, Foochow and Hainanese. However, the Chinese community has adopted Mandarin as its lingua franca, albeit Mandarin is not a heritage language of Malaysia. This status creates pressureson families and communities to shift away from their own Chinese heritage language (Wang & Chong, 2011). However, rather than Mandarin only having a socioeconomic or political pull, this paper argues that a Chinese-Malaysian epistemology of language might also explain why Mandarin is valued and heritage language maintenance is jeopardised. Based on folk linguistic data from focus group discussions with Chinese-Malaysian tertiary students across Malaysia, the paper shows the unnegotiable connection between Mandarin and what is perceived as being authentically ethnic Chinese. Mandarin was explained to be the only bona fide mother tongue of the ethnic Chinese, regardless of actual language proficiency, and that other Chinese languages are in fact Mandarin dialects. This helps Chinese-Malaysians to construct a less heterogeneous Mandarin-led identity to legitimise their local Chinese identity (Albury, 2017).
Albury, N. J. (2017). Mother tongues and languaging in Malaysia: Critical linguistics under critical examination. Language in Society, 46(4), 567-589.
Wang, X., & Chong, S. L. (2011). A hierarchical model for language maintenance and language shift: focus on the Malaysian Chinese community. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32(6), 577-591.
Cite as: Murata Missagh, J. (2017, December). Intergenerational transmission of Japanese in Argentina. Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5661916
Migration movements are the driving force behind language contact situations, which in turn may produce a change in linguistic behavior, oftentimes towards language shift. In point, the intergenerational transmission of language offers itself as a critical aspect in the ethnolinguistic vitality of immigrant languages. As Haque (2010) suggests, language transmission and language practices are often subjected to issues related to national, family and local language(s) policies.
This communication presents a number of aspects affecting the intergenerational transmission of Japanese as an immigrant language in Argentina, namely the role of family language planning, language ideologies in the host country and educational language policies. Following Onaha (2012), a distinction is made between Pre-war and Post-war period in the history of the community, WW2 being a crucial event as from permanent settling in South America became the norm and, with it, a relative loosening of the immigrant language transmission practices. Through sociolinguistic and ethnographic research, an outline of the results of in-depth interviews, and archive resources consulting is offered.
Spanglish in Intermediate-Advanced SHL Students: Attitudes and Production
Carlos Enrique Ibarra University of New Mexico CC BY 4.0
Cite as: Ibarra, C. E. (2017, December). Spanglish in Intermediate-Advanced SHL Students: Attitudes and Production. Paper presented at the Third UC Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages Symposium: Challenges and Benefits. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5668300
Does bilingual behavior change in a Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL) class that promotes this linguistic discourse mode as a valid language of instruction? This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative results of 16 pre and 12 post interviews conducted at the beginning and at the end of a semester-long intermediate-advanced (fourth semester) SHL course in a large public university in the Southwest US. These interviews were conducted to explore the attitudes towards the use of bilingual mode (Spanglish, as defined by students themselves), and to examine the quantitative effects of discussing Spanglish over the course of 16 weeks in a positive light. Results indicate that, in both interviews, the majority of these students held a constructive view of Spanglish as part of their identity and communities and as a legitimate means of communication in the classroom, and that there was an increase in intrasentential and intersentential code-switches as measurable features of bilingual mode, in spite of a lack of a similar increase in word insertions. This rise in code-switching production, making use of the positive attitudes towards Spanglish as a home variety, implies the use of more Spanish and its preservation, the ultimate goal of SHL courses.