Today, landscapes that we inhabit blend the physical and digital. Linguistic landscapes are expressions of formal and informal language policy and may influence whānau (family) language practices. Our research illustrates the ways in which linguistic landscapes of early childhood education (ECE) centres evolve, and explores the related co-evolution with digital technologies (Davis 2018). Around a decade ago ECE centres rapidly adopted digital tools such as iPads and ePortfolios to support children’s learning and since then teachers’ work has evolved so that children may access a healthy blend of their physical and digital worlds. Our National Science Challenges research, E Tipu e Rea, A Better Start, has uncovered opportunities and challenges of the digital world for all learners, focusing on emergent bilinguals. Bilingualism brings lifelong benefits that are particularly valuable to challenged learners, their whānau and communities. Multilingualism is embedded within our exemplary Te Whāriki ECE curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand. We have evidence from six participating ECE centres of the visibility of home languages within the children’s physical and digital environments and how visibility was enhanced over time, indicating a significant impact of our research. Our recommendations include improvements to policy at local and national levels.
Contemporary globalising processes result in the emergence of new stereotypes and strategies of coexistence of different nations. The motto “Unity in Diversity” has crossed the world and made a deep impact on the dialogue between migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous population. Translanguaging/plurilingualism and intergenerational transmission have become vital tools for the safeguarding of linguistic minorities (native-speakers of Armenian, Azerbaijani and Russian) that have a cultural life at the core of their collective identities. The paper presents progressive state policies of the Republic of Georgia directed towards the integration of ethnic minorities into the Georgian society. It “uncovers” the existence of growing linguistic and cultural diversity due to the historic transnational migration and highlights an utmost importance of the establishment of multilingual educational strategies aimed at teaching the state language as well as the mother tongue of ethnic minorities for the safeguarding of their languages, cultures and even religion. Multilingualism as well as multiliteracy is discussed in the light of a successful “collaboration” of intergenerational transmission and classroom activities. The former deals with the language shift within families of ethnic minorities, while the latter investigates the role of well-organized in-class activities. The paper presents certain insights into multilingual education and makes specific proposals considering the reformation of teaching models and tools (shifting to multimedia facilities, CLIL approach, etc.), because through the use of tools or linguistic resources “individuals negotiate the meaning of their social positions and emerging identities”.
For many transnational families ensuring their children become literate in their minority language is of paramount importance (Li, 2006; Lindholm-Leary, 2012; Berens, Kovelman, & Pettito, 2013; Eisenchalas, Shally & Guillemin, 2013). Parents feel that is important their children attain biliteracy and are able to read both or all of their languages (Ro & Cheatham, 2009), so as to communicate with older family members or access canonical and religious works in their minority language(s). The case of a diglossic language like Arabic poses challenges to parents because the child must learn the spoken language and then learn to read the formal written language (Walldoff, 2017; Said & AlGhamdi, in prep). This ethnographic sociolinguistic study focuses on the home literacy practices of an Arabic-English speaking family in the UK. Data was collected over 24 months (and is still ongoing) through either video or audio recordings and some has been transcribed. The data suggest that the home linguistic environment plays a crucial role in the development of literacy in Arabic, the mother take it upon herself to designate particular times during the week and the father on weekends to overtly teach and monitor the literacy development of their children. The eldest daughter (the focus of this presentation) teaches her younger sibling to also become biliterate (Obeid, 2009; Bridges, 2014; Kheirkhah, 2016). This paper contributes to the growing literature on family language policy and introduced new knowledge about Arabic literacy.
I compare patterns of intergenerational transmission of traditional dialects (TD) across different Arabic-speaking communities in Israel. Traditional local Arabic dialects – spoken by the elders above the age of 70 – include Bedouin, rural, and urban varieties, to a great extent not mutually intelligible. Cross-dialectal mutual intelligibility increases among younger people working in public institutions or state companies and educated in standard Arabic, Hebrew and other modern languages. University life largely contributes to the constitution of a koineized Palestinian educated standard, wherein phonetic and morphological features of each community diminish and fade. Specific lexical inventories that describe the traditional material life, cultural practices, and geographic milieus of every linguistic community are also vanishing under the influence of a modern life style. I compare three dialectal groups: the urban Christian Arabic of Nazareth (Galilee), the rural Muslim Arabic of Kfar Qāsim (Muṯallaṯ) and the Bedouin Arabic of Kseyfeh (Negev). I analyze the following parameters among elders and young people: recognition of TD as part of the identity; motivation for transmitting/learning TD; social factors that prevent/foster TD transmission; social occasions of TD transmission; impact of the number of speakers and of the use of the dialect in literature and media on TD transmission.
This presentation focuses on descriptions of language use among high school students studying Arabic, Kurdish, Turkish and Urdu through mother tongue instruction in Sweden, and Vietnamese as a community language in Australia. Mother tongue instruction in Sweden is an elective school subject available to students who speak languages other than Swedish on a regular basis with at least one guardian. In Australia, community language schools, run by volunteers and often operating on weekends, provide the opportunity to study and develop proficiencies in languages other than English to students who speak these languages with their guardians. Informed by emerging theories of translanguaging as everyday practice and pedagogy, transcriptions of four focus group discussions with 33 students in both these forms of education were analysed to explore how they describe their language use in different contexts. Further, similarities and differences in these student descriptions are discussed in relation to local and national language education policies. Preliminary analysis suggests that when students are not restrained by family or school language policies, they flexibly and strategically draw on a variety of linguistic resources, thus facilitating communication, creating meaning, and reflecting their complex and dynamic plurilingual identities.
Keywords: mother tongue instruction; community language education; translanguaging, plurilingual identities
Francophones of the Saint John Valley (SJV) occupy an international region between Maine and New Brunswick (NB), Canada and the French they speak is largely the product of contact among the Acadian French of NB (brayon), French of nearby Quebec, and English. In the SJV, Maine, a history of repression and lack of institutional support means that this minority language is dying, with older speakers not (fully) transmitting it to younger generations. Though French is in decline in the SJV, Maine, there are still various celebrations and proclamations of Acadian identity, an identity which is largely simplistic given the historical Quebecois presence in the region. The state of French in Maine is intimately tied to how its heritage speakers identify themselves, the (non-)valuing of their variety, and how they exploit “Acadian” identity in the name of symbolic ethnicity all while facing the fact that they are losing their French. In a region where ethnolinguistic labels abound (e.g. Valley French, Franglais, Acadian, Brayon, Quebecois, French Canadian, Franco-American, New England French), which label is most appropriate and how does the fluidity with which “Acadian” is used in the SJV compare to “Cajun” in Louisiana, a sister variety also in decline? After briefly providing some linguistic evidence for the Quebecois presence in the SJV, Maine, this talk will focus on how French speakers in the SJV identify themselves, and how this identity compares to other French enclaves in the US.
Sardinian is a minority language spoken on the island of Sardinia by ca. one million speakers and it is classified today as an endangered language, as the “ability to speak Sardinian has declined from about 80% as ‘very good’ in the parental generation to less than 50% recording the same level of ability for their siblings” (Salminen, 1993). The status of Sardinian as endangered language is strictly related to the lack of intergenerational transmission (Mensching, 2000), whose roots can be found in the strong relationship between language and identity, as “intergenerational transmission […] is clearly affected by language ideologies” (Campell & Christian, 2003, p.4). Due to historical and political events, Sardinian has gained a different social status in comparison to Italian, which overlaps with the subordinated role that the island has played and still plays today in the Italian geopolitics. The decline of the number of Sardinian speakers can be seen then as a vivid example of the effects of idealization processes on language perception, use, and maintenance. However, together with some regional regulations passed by the government in recent years aimed to “rescue” Sardinian (Maxia, 2017), the authors of the so-called Sardinian Literary Spring are also playing a key role in the restore of its prestige. In this paper, I argue that authors such as Marcello Fois, Salvatore Niffoi, and Milena Agus, with their linguistic choices, are contributing to the intergenerational transmission of a cultural and linguistic heritage that would get lost otherwise. This study focuses specifically on those strategies and linguistic elements used by the authors of the Sardinian Literary Spring that are contributing today to the maintenance and transmission of Sardinian.
Word cloud is used to visually represent text data. It is typically used to highlight keyword metadata on websites. Different font sizes and colours are used to determine relative prominence of various keywords.
This tutorial will help you understand and generate word clouds. It was produced by the UC LATL-lab with the support of the National Science Challenge “A Better Start- E Tipu e Rea”
Creating word cloud using wordclouds.com
The following video tutorial will help you use word cloud.
In case you found any difficulties learning from our video tutorial, given below is a step by step guide on how to create a word cloud using WordClouds.com and add text to photos on a mobile device (e.g. smartphone or tablet) using the app, Textgram. The screenshots in this guide show the layout in Google Chrome on a PC. This will differ slightly from a mobile device.
Enter http://www.wordclouds.com/ into your web browser and hit Enter.
Select file and select an input method for the text your word cloud will be created from. (In this example, we are going to paste the text from another document.)
Copy the text you want to create a word cloud from;and paste it into the text box in WordCloud.com.
Select Apply and your word cloud will be generated (this may take a few moments).
To edit the size or remove a word from your cloud, select Word list. The number represents how many times the word appears in the text. The more times a word appears, the bigger it will appear in your word cloud. Increase or decrease the number depending on how large you want the word to appear in relation to other words. To remove a word (e.g. a function word like ‘the’) delete that line from the word list.
You can edit your word cloud by:-Adjusting the -/+ slider which changes the size of the words in your cloud.-Tightening or widening the gaps between words, rotating words, or inverting the image so the words appear in the background and the shape is blank.-Changing the shape of your word cloud, the colours used, or the font.
When you are happy with the way your word cloud looks, elect File > Save to save the file to your computer. You can now print the image or add to documents as required.
This tutorial will help you use ‘Little Story Creator’, a digital storytelling tool that can create a bridge between home and an early childhood education centre, especially for children growing up with more than one language around them. It was produced by Kendall and Jess, our Summer Scholars at the UC LATL-lab with the support of the National Science Challenge “A Better Start– E Tipu e Rea”. This is one of a series of resources produced by the LATL-lab for Early Years Educators.
LATL-lab summer scholars also created a step by step guide on how to create a storybook using ‘Little Story Creator’ for Apple devices. The screenshots in this guide show the layout on a mobile device. This may differ slightly with different devices. Download our pdf guide by clicking the image on the right.
Using Little Story Creator: A Step by Step Guide
Follow the instructions given below to create your own digital story using Little Story Creator. The same principles apply to other digital story makers.
In your Apple App Store search for, and install ‘Little Story Creator’
Open the application and click on the + sign in the top right corner and add a new story. Here you can name your story with the keypad.
Your story will appear in the home page as shown in the picture below. Click on your story to begin creating it.
From here, follow the steps provided on the application to create and edit your story. For example:
Choose a background
Add existing photographs to each page by clicking the camera icon and allowing access to your devices camera roll.
OR take photographs and videos on the spot by allowing access to your devices camera)
Add a title and text to each page by clicking the ‘Tt’ button
Add and record audio to each page by clicking the microphone button as shown below.
To add a new page to the book or duplicate the current page of the book click the page icon as shown below.
To delete any existing work click on the trash can as shown below.
To add preexisting stickers to a page, click on the smiley face icon as shown below and choose from the list of stickers.
To draw freehand on a page click on the pen icon as shown below, choose a colour and begin drawing by touching the screen.
An eraser is provided next to the pen icon to delete any unwanted drawings.
When you are finished your story and exiting the ‘creation’ mode press the home button in the top left corner like below. Save and exit.
When you have returned to the home screen of the application, click on your chosen story to read and review your creation.
QR Code is machine readable optical label containing information about a specific product/item. As the name Quick Response Code (QR Code) suggests, it quickly regenerates specific piece of information from a transitory media and displays it on your device.
QR Code Generator – Step by step guide
The following video tutorial will help you generate QR Codes effectively. It was produced by the UC LATL-lab with the support of the National Science Challenge “A Better Start- E Tipu e Rea”. It is reproduced here to make it available to others.
A step by step guide on how to create a QR code using the website QR-Code-Generator.com, is given below. Follow the instructions carefully to generate a QR Code effectively.